Data Pump Export and Import
Data Pump takes the old export and import utilities one step further, you can have total control over the job running (stop it, pause it, check it, restart it). Data pump is a server side technology and it can transfer large amounts of data very quickly using parallel streams to achieve maximum throughput, they can be 15-45% faster than the older import/export utilities. Advantages using data pump are
A couple of notes is that you cannot export to a tape device only to disk, and the import will only work with version of oracle 10.1 or greater. Also remember that the expdp and impdp are command line tools and run from within the Operating System.
Data Pump Uses
You can use data pump for the following
Data Pump components
Data pump technology consists of three major components
Data Access methods
Data pump has two methods for loading data, direct path or external table path you as a dba have no control with what data pump uses, normally simple structures such as heap tables without triggers will use direct path more complex tables will use the external path, oracle will always try and use the direct-path method.
bypasses the database buffer cache and writes beyond the high water mark when finished adjusts the high water mark, No undo is generated and can switch off redo as well, minimal impact to users as does not use SGA. Must disable triggers on tables before use.
Uses the database buffer cache acts as a SELECT statement into a dump file, during import reconstructs statements into INSERT statements, so whole process is like a normal SELECT/INSERT job. Both undo and redo are generated and uses a normal COMMIT just like a DML statement would.
In the following cases oracle will use the external path if any of the below are in use
Data Pump files
You will use three types's of files when using data pump, all files will be created on the server.
Data Pump privileges
In order to advance features of data pump you need exp_full_database and imp_full_database privileges.
How Data Pump works
The Master Control Process (MCP), has the process name DMnn, only one master job runs per job which controls the whole Data Pump job, it performs the following
The master process creates a master table which contains job details (state, restart info), this table is created in the users schema who is running the Data Pump job. Once the job has finished it dumps the table contents into the data pump file and deletes the table. When you import the data pump file it re-creates the table and reads it to verify the correct sequence in which the it should import the various database objects.
The worker process is named DWnn and is the process that actually performs the work, you can have a number of worker process running on the same job (parallelism). The work process updates the master table with the various job status.
The shadow process is created when the client logs in to the oracle server it services data pump API requests, it creates the job consisting of the master table and the master process.
The client processes are the expdp and impdp commands.
Running Data Pump
You can either run via a command line specifying options or use a parameter file, there are many options to Data Pump so it would be best to check out the Oracle documentation, I have given a few examples below
expdp vallep/password directory=datapump full=y dumpfile=data.dmp filesize=2G parallel=2 logfile=full.log
Note: increase the parallel option based on the number of CPU's you have
|schema||expdp sys/password schemas=testuser dumpfile=data.dmp logfile=schema.log|
|table||expdp vallep/password tables=accounts,employees dumpfile=data.dmp content=metadata_only|
expdp vallep/password tablespaces=users dumpfile=data.dmp logfile=tablespace.log
|database||impdp system/password full=y dumpfile=data.dmp nologfile=y|
impdp system/password schemas=’HR’ remap_schema=’HR:HR_TEST’ content=data_only
|directory||specifies a oracle directory object|
|filesize||split the dump file into specific sizes (could be used if filesystem has 2GB limit)|
|parfile||specify the parameter file|
|content||contents option can be ALL, METADATA_ONLY or DATA_ONLY|
|compression||compression is used by default but you can stop it|
|query||selectively export table data using a SQL statement|
|estimate||Calculate job estimates where the vaild keywords are blocks and statistics|
|estimate_only||Calculate job estimates without performing the export|
|network link||you can perform a export across a network|
|encryption||you can encrypt data within the data pump file|
|parallel||increase worker processes to increase throughput, base it on number of CPU's|
|remap_schema||move objects from one schema to another|
|remap_datafile||change the name of the datafile when moving across different systems|
|remap_tablespace||move from one tablespace to another|
|DBA_DATAPUMP_JOBS||summary information of all currently running data pump jobs|
|DBA_DATAPUMP_SESSIONS||displays the user currently running data pump jobs|
|V$SESSION_LONGOPS||display information like totalwork, sofar, units and opname|
|IMP_FULL_DATABASE||required if using advanced features|
|EXP_FULL_DATABASE||required if using advanced features|
The package dbms_datapump can be used for the following
d1 := dbms_datapump.open('import','full',null, 'test1');
dbms_datapump.add_file(d1, 'test1.dmp', 'dmpdir');
dbms_datapump.metadata_remap(d1, 'remap_schema', 'oe', 'hr');