Solaris Containers (formally zones) cheat sheet

There are two types of zones global and non-global. The global zone is the server itself and is used as the system-wide configuration and control, there can only be one global zone per system. A maximum of 8192 non-global zones can exist on a system, all non-global zones are isolated from each other.

There are two type types of non-global zones sparse root zone or whole root zones.

whole root zone Solaris packages are copied to the zone's private file system. Disk space usage is much greater than using a sparse zone
sparse zone

You can determine how much of the global zone file system you want to be inherited from the global zone. Sparse zones use loopback file systems from global zone.

Use the inherit-pkg-dir resource to specify which directories to inherit.

Zone States

Configured Configuration has been completed and storage has been committed. Additional configuration is still required.
Incomplete Zone is in this state when it is being installed or uninstalled.
Installed The zone has a confirmed configuration, zoneadm is used to verify the configuration, Solaris packages have been installed, even through it has been installed, it still has no virtual platform associated with it.
Ready (active) Zone's virtual platform is established. The kernel creates the zsched process, the network interfaces are plumbed and filesystems mounted. The system also assigns a zone ID at this state, but no processes are associated with this zone.
Running (active) A zone enters this state when the first user process is created. This is the normal state for an operational zone.
Shutting down + Down (active) Normal state when a zone is being shutdown.

Zone Daemons


Each zone will have a zoneadm associated with it and carries out the following actions:

allocates the zone ID and starts the zsched process
sets system-wide resource controls
prepares the zone's devices if any specified in the zone configuration
plumbs the virtual network interface
mounts any loopback or conventional filesystems

zsched The job of the zsched is to keep track of kernel threads running within the zone.

List zone name

# zonename

List all zones

All the configured zone and there status should be listed.

# zoneadm list -cv
0    global     running   /
3    testzone   running   /zones/testzone

Creating a zone

When creating a zone the zonename must be unique, no longer than 64 characters and is case-sensitive and must begin with a
alpha-numeric character. It can include underbars(_), hyphens (-) and periods (.). The name global and SUNW are reserved
words and cannot be used.

# zonecfg -z testzone
testzone: No such zone configured
Use 'create' to begin configuring a new zone.
zonecfg:testzone> create
zonecfg:testzone> set zonepath=/zones/testzone
zonecfg:testzone> set autoboot=true
zonecfg:testzone> info
zonepath: /zones/testzone
autoboot: true
dir: /lib
dir: /platform
dir: /sbin
dir: /usr
zonecfg:testzone> verify
zonecfg:testzone> commit
zonecfg:testzone> ^D

The zone will now be created in a configured state, ignore the error at the top as this is just reporting that there is no other testzone.

# zoneadm list -cv
0   global   running    /
-   testzone configured  /zones/testzone

/zones can be a filesystem or directory. Although the zone has been create it does not have resouces yet i.e no ip address.

Install the zone

Copy the necessary files from the global zone and populate the product database for the zone. While the zone is being installed
the state changes to incomplete.

# zoneadm –z testzone install
# zoneadm list –cv
0     global      running       /
1    testzone   incomplete        /zones/testzone

Once the zone is installed the state changes again to installed

# zoneadm list –cv
ID   NAME        STATUS        PATH
0    global      running       /
1    testzone    installed     /zones/testzone

Ready a zone

When the zone is in the ready state it is associated with a virtual platform, network interfaces are plumbed and filesystems mounted.
There is no "ok>" prompt in a zone.

# zoneadm –z testzone ready
# zoneadm list –cv
0     global      running       /
1    testzone   ready         /zones/testzone

Booting a zone

When you boot a zone the state changes to running. When booting a zone it automatically readies the state of a zone so you
do not need to ready a zone beforehand.

# zoneadm –z testzone boot
# zlogin -C testzone
[Connected to zone 'testzone' console]
[NOTICE: Zone booting up]
SunOS Release 5.10 Version Generic 64-bit
Copyright 1983-2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Use is subject to license terms.
Hostname: ukstsg10
ukstsg10 console login:

# zoneadm list –cv
0    global    running  /
4    testzone  running  /export/home/testzone

Login into a zones console

You can login to the zones console, use '~.' to exit out of the console. All console messages will be reported here as per a
normal console, they only difference is there is no "ok>" prompt.

The first time a zone is booted you have to finish off the configuration which asks you set language, terminal type, etc

# zlogin -C testzone

Adding a network resource to a zone

You need to log into the zone for the changes to take effect

# zonecfg –z testzone
zonecfg:testzone> add net
zonecfg:testzone:net> set address=
zonecfg:testzone:net> set physical=hme0
zonecfg:testzone:net> end
zonecfg:testzone> export
create -b
set zonepath=/zones/testzone
set autoboot=false
add inherit-pkg-dir
set dir=/lib
add inherit-pkg-dir
set dir=/platform
add inherit-pkg-dir
set dir=/sbin
add inherit-pkg-dir
set dir=/usr
add net
set address=
set physical=hme0

Mount a LOFS in a zone (ideal for cdrom)

You need to log into the zone for the changes to take effect

# zonecfg -z testzone
zonecfg:myzone> add fs
zonecfg:myzone:fs> set dir=/mnt
zonecfg:myzone:fs> set special=/cdrom
zonecfg:myzone:fs> set type=lofs
zonecfg:myzone:fs> add options [ro,nodevices]
zonecfg:myzone:fs> end
zonecfg:myzone> commit
zonecfg:myzone> exit

Add a disk/filesystem device to a zone

You need to log into the zone for the changes to take effect

# zonecfg –z testzone
zonecfg:my-zone3> add fs
zonecfg:my-zone3:fs> set dir=/data1
zonecfg:my-zone3:fs> set special=/dev/dsk/c1t1d0s0
zonecfg:my-zone3:fs> set raw=/dev/rdsk/c1t1d0s0
zonecfg:my-zone3:fs> set type=ufs
zonecfg:my-zone3:fs> add options [logging, nosuid]

zonecfg:my-zone3:fs> end
zonecfg:my-zone3:fs> commit
zonecfg:my-zone3:fs> exit

create the vfstab file entry and mount the device

# df –k
/data1 8705501 8657 8609789 1% /data1

# mount
/data1 on /data1 read/write/setuid/devices/intr/largefiles/logging/xattr/onerror=panic/dev=80008 8 on Mon Mar 7 15:50:53 2005

# cat /etc/mnttab
/dev/dsk/c1t1d0s0 /export/home/testzone/root/data1 ufs rw,intr,largefiles, logging, xattr,onerror=panic,dev=800088 1110211568

Mount a filesystem from the global zone

You need to log into the zone for the changes to take effect

# zonecfg -z testzone
zonecfg:myzone> add inherit-pkg-dir
zonecfg:myzone:fs> set dir=/opt/sfw
zonecfg:myzone:fs> end
zonecfg:myzone> commit
zonecfg:myzone> exit

Halting a zone

# zoneadm –z testzone halt
# zoneadm list –cv

0  global   running    /
-  testzone installed  /zones/testzone

Rebooting a zone

# zoneadm –z testzone reboot
# zoneadm list –cv

0  global   running    /
1 testzone running  /zones/testzone

Uninstalling a zone

# zoneadm –z testzone uninstall -F

Deleting a zone

# zoneadm –z testzone delete -F